Download a PDF chart about how Jesus fulfilled the feasts of Israel during Holy Week here: Holy Week
When I was a boy, my family went to Immanuel Lutheran Church in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Holy Week there was a moving festival, starting with Palm Sunday when we were all given palms to wave, and then followed a few days later by the Maundy Thursday service. I still remember vividly the sad and somber Good Friday service where we sang moving hymns such as “Go to Dark Gethsemane” and “There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood.” The music was incredible as it emanated from one of the city’s largest organ, which was situated over almost the entire backside of the balcony of the 150-year-old sanctuary. On Sunday, we celebrated a joyous sunrise service during which the church thundered with praise and adoration: “HE IS RISEN!”
It was many years later that I began to study the Bible in earnest and through learned teachers of the gospel began to understand the Jewish roots of our Christian faith. It was quite an eye-opener to realize that the disciples, as well as Jesus Himself, were Jewish and acted in a Jewish culture with Jewish traditions and history. I had been brought up with a basically “Western” Gentile or Greek way of thinking about the Scriptures. That was why some Scriptures didn’t make much sense to me. One example is found in Matthew 12:38-40:
The Sign of Jonah
38 Then some of the Pharisees and teachers of the law said to him, “Teacher, we want to see a sign from you.”
39 He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. 40 For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.”
I had been taught that Jesus died on Friday and was buried toward the evening and then rose on Sunday morning. But this was only 1-1/2 days or about 36 hours, nowhere near 3 days and 3 nights or 72 hours. So I decided to check Jonah. Perhaps Jesus was using a Jewish method of keeping time in which any part of a day meant a day and a night. (This is an argument I have heard from well meaning-scholars far more learned than me.) In Jonah 1:17, I read, “Now the LORD provided a huge fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.”
That sounded pretty clear, time wise. As I pondered that, I came across Matthew16:1-4:
The Demand for a Sign
1 The Pharisees and Sadducees came to Jesus and tested him by asking him to show them a sign from heaven.
2 He replied, “When evening comes, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red,’
3 and in the morning, ‘Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.’ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times.
4 A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.” Jesus then left them and went away.
So this “sign of Jonah” seemed to be important, as it was the only sign that would be given to those asking to see a miracle. Was this a time when the Creator of the universe would be imprecise and conform to an (alleged) obscure way of Jewish thinking about days and nights? By extension, I thought, maybe the Scriptures were imprecise about everything: the moral laws, the injunctions against sin. Perhaps we need to be more liberal in how we look at all Scripture. I thought not. Jesus Himself had said that Jonah was in the whale for “three days and three nights.”
What became obvious is that there was a difference in thinking: Greek thought versus Eastern, Jewish thought. I was thinking like a Greek, when I needed to be thinking like a Jew, as the Gospel writers did.
So how did God measure time? I learned from Genesis 1:5 that a day for the Lord is measured from sundown to sundown, so that during a “day” light always comes out of darkness, and order out of chaos, just as God created the universe. Jews to this day begin their new day or “dawn” at sundown. The people of Israel were also on a lunar calendar, not a solar calendar, which was how Romans at the time of Christ measured time. That meant that the 360-day lunar year (which frequently required a 13th month), “floated” in comparison with the 364-day solar year. You might have noticed on your calendar that Passover or Hanukkah dates change every year in relation to our Easter & Christmas times. As the church shifted its center from Jerusalem to Rome, the Western concept of time and seasons was adopted, and this included how we interpret Scripture.
Through the teachings of Ray Vander Laan and my pastor, Jeff Carlson, I began to see the importance of the Jewish roots of Christianity. Their teaching opened up a whole new world of understanding and awesome fascination with how God inspired and put together the Scriptures. The whole Bible began to make sense as a guide pointing to Jesus Christ. In Matthew 5:17-18, Jesus said, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”
Jesus fulfilled these words in wonderful ways. For example, the tabernacle and all the items within were all about Jesus. These items were made to strictly conform to the pattern that God gave Moses in Exodus 25:8-9, and they pointed to the life and work of Jesus: “Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell among them. Make this tabernacle and all its furnishings exactly like the pattern I will show you.”
Hebrews 8:5 explains this further: “They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: ‘See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.’”
This pattern pointed to Jesus and the day when He would actually come and dwell among us. Hebrews 9 goes into great detail about this, describing the tabernacle, its furnishings, and the duties of the High Priest, and then in verse 8 says:
8 The Holy Spirit was showing by this that the way into the Most Holy Place had not yet been disclosed as long as the first tabernacle was still functioning. 9 This is an illustration for the present time, indicating that the gifts and sacrifices being offered were not able to clear the conscience of the worshiper. 10 They are only a matter of food and drink and various ceremonial washings—external regulations applying until the time of the new order. 11 But when Christ came as high priest of the good things that are now already here, he went through the greater and more perfect tabernacle that is not made with human hands, that is to say, is not a part of this creation. 12 He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but he entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. 13 The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean. 14 How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God! 15 For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant
In the same way, the seven Levitical festivals were also given as “lasting ordinances” to be kept by Israel and were a picture of the life and work of our Savior.
In Romans 15:4, Paul said, “For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us, so that through the endurance taught in the Scriptures and the encouragement they provide we might have hope.”
When we attempt to look at this with Jewish eyes, we see how Jesus fulfilled the first three feasts of the Lord during Passion Week: Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and the Feast of Firstfruits, all found in Leviticus 23:4-14. (Note: Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were interchangeable terms for the Gospel writers—and still are to this day.)
(Please refer to the Passion Week chart to help clarify the following texts.)
Passion Week actually begins 4 days before Passover, on Lamb Selection Day, found in Exodus 12:1-6. Christians refer to this day as Palm Sunday, as Jesus was selected to be King on that day.
1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 2 “This month is to be for you the first month, the first month of your year. 3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household. 4 If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat. 5 The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats. 6 Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month, when all the members of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight.
As you can see, this was the first important step in the Passover Feast. The lamb had to be perfect and without blemish. The lamb was selected and then carefully examined for 4 days to make sure it was perfect, a fitting sacrifice to the Lord. Alfred Edersheim tells us on page 170 of The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, that “There is also a significant tradition that some were wont to select their sacrificial lamb four days before the Passover, and keep it tied in a prominent place within view, so as constantly to remind them of the coming service.” Jesus fulfilled this Lamb Selection Day on Nisan 10, which was actually on Saturday, a Sabbath. He came into Jerusalem (Matt. 21:1-10) riding a donkey, fulfilling Zechariah 9:9:
9 Rejoice greatly, Daughter Zion!
Shout, Daughter Jerusalem!
See, your king comes to you,
righteous and victorious,
lowly and riding on a donkey,
on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
This was the first and only time Jesus allowed Himself to be recognized by the community as king. The people didn’t realize it, but they were not only selecting a king but also a perfect sacrificial lamb, in fulfillment of the Scriptures, on Nisan 10. Jesus was confirmed as the “Lamb of God” who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29, 36; Rev. 5:6; 7:10).
Isaiah 53 paints this picture of the Lamb of God:
7 He was oppressed and afflicted,
yet he did not open his mouth;
he was led like a lamb to the slaughter,
and as a sheep before its shearers is silent,
so he did not open his mouth.
Jesus also entered Jerusalem on the Sabbath and then rose on the Sabbath because He was the “Lord of the Sabbath” (Matt. 12:5-8).
One of the first things Jesus did during this week was to go to the Temple and throw out the money changers and merchants (Matt. 21:12-13; Mark 11:12-16). By doing this, Jesus was really fulfilling the law in Exodus 12:17-20 to remove the leaven (sin) from His Father’s house.
17 “Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. 18 In the first month you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. 19 For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel. 20 Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread.”
So why did Jesus cleanse His Father’s house after coming into Jerusalem? To get rid of the leaven! This custom of searching through the house to find and destroy the leaven is still practiced today by Jewish families. In a book on Passover by Michael Strassfeld, The Jewish Holidays: A Guide and Commentary, he devotes seven pages to the traditions regarding leaven.
Our church celebrates the Passover meal as well. The “Passover Seder Haggadah” (the Seder liturgy) opens with the “Bedikath Chametz—searching for leaven: “(Search the house for leaven, gather it, wrap it securely and burn it.) … Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who sanctified us by His commandments and commanded us to remove the leaven. Any leaven that may still be in my house, which I have not seen or have not removed, may it be as if it does not exist, and as the dust of the earth.” So you see that this sometimes-difficult verse of Jesus driving out the money changers in the Temple makes more sense when seen as a fulfillment of God’s law given in Exodus 12.
During the next 3 days following the 10th of Nisan, the Lamb of God was examined as never before by the religious and civil authorities. It was during this “Lamb Examination Period” that Jesus was given the most difficult questions and tests of His ministry. The Pharisees questioned Jesus’ authority (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8). They asked, “Who is the Christ?” (Matt. 22:41-46; Mark 12:35; Luke 20:41-44). They tried to trap Jesus with a question about paying taxes (Matt. 21:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26). They asked a “difficult” question about the resurrection (Matt.22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-40). They asked, “What is the greatest commandment?” (Matt. 22:34-40; Mark 12:28-34). Then, as Jesus’ last test just before His death, He was examined by Pilate, who found Him innocent (Matt. 22:46; Mark 12:34; Luke 20:26, 40; Matt. 26:59-60).
The texts indicates that Jesus clearly passed all the tests during the “Lamb Examination Period” and in so doing amazed His inquisitors. For example, we read, “And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor from that day did anyone dare to ask him anymore questions” (Matt. 22:46). Also, “And after that no one dared to ask Him any more questions” (Mark 12:34). And in Luke 20:26, “And they were not able in the presence of the people to catch Him in what He said, but marveling at His answer they became silent.” Jesus passed all the tests of the “Lamb Examination Period” in fulfillment of the Scriptures. Amazing!
During this time, Jesus also gave the Olivet Discourse and prepared His followers for future events. So, even at this difficult time, Jesus the Sacrificial Lamb took time to shepherd His flock (the disciples) as the Good Shepherd. Now on the 13th of Nisan, Tuesday, Jesus began His Passover celebration with the disciples. This carried on into the 14th of Nisan, Wednesday, because, as I stated earlier, the new day dawned at sundown. In this way, Jesus not only celebrated Passover with His disciples, but also became the Passover Lamb to take away the sins of the world, all in the same day! It is incredible to realize that God had this all timed out perfectly for 2,000 years, from Abraham and throughout the Old Testament.
On Wednesday, the 14th of Nisan, Jesus celebrated His last supper—the Passover meal. He then went to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane, singing the Hallel, which comprised Psalm 113 -118 and was always sung at Passover celebrations (Alfred Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, pp.175-79).
It’s inspiring to think that Jesus sang the verses of Psalm 118:22-29 with His disciples on that night.
22 The stone the builders rejected
has become the cornerstone;
23 the LORD has done this,
and it is marvelous in our eyes.
24 The LORD has done it this very day;
let us rejoice today and be glad.
25 LORD, save us!
LORD, grant us success!
26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD.
From the house of the LORD we bless you.
27 The LORD is God,
and he has made his light shine on us.
With boughs in hand, join in the festal procession
up to the horns of the altar.
28 You are my God, and I will praise you;
you are my God, and I will exalt you.
29 Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good;
his love endures forever.
So Jesus sang and prayed with His disciples and was then betrayed by Judas and tried before the high priest and Pilate—all on the night of the 14th of Nisan. All this had to be done quickly so that Jesus could fulfill the Passover Feast. He was nailed on the cross at the 3rd hour (9 a.m.—time was measured from 6 a.m., the first hour). Mark 15:25 confirms: “It was nine in the morning when they crucified him.” He died at exactly the 9th hour (3 a.m.) in fulfillment of the Scriptures (Exodus 12:6; Leviticus 23:5). Mark 15:34,37 tells us: “And at three in the afternoon Jesus cried out in a loud voice, ‘Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?’ (which means ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?’) . . . With a loud cry, Jesus breathed his last.” To die so quickly was unusual in itself because people could hang on the cross in agony for days, but Jesus chose that exact time of His death: He died in 6 hours. He was fulfilling God’s timetable.
When Jesus died at 3 o’clock, He had to be buried within three hours because the next day was a “special” or “high” Sabbath, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which occurred on Nissan 15. When we read Leviticus 23:6-8, we see that this was a day in which you could do no work; it was a special Sabbath: “On the fifteenth day of that month the LORD’s Festival of Unleavened Bread begins; for seven days you must eat bread made without yeast. On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. For seven days present a food offering to the LORD. And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.”
The 15th of Nisan was a “floating” Sabbath—just after Passover on the 14th—one of the seven special Sabbaths listed in Leviticus 23, and not to be confused with the weekly Sabbath (which is what happens when you see the Scriptures through Gentile eyes). That’s why we read that the 14th was a “preparation day”: “Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath” (John 19:31).
Weekly Sabbaths did not require a preparation day. But Jesus had to be taken down from the cross before the special Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Also, Deuteronomy 21:22-23 speaks of a man being hung on a tree: “If someone guilty of a capital offense is put to death and their body is exposed on a pole, you must not leave the body hanging on the pole overnight. Be sure to bury it that same day, because anyone who is hung on a pole is under God’s curse. You must not desecrate the land the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance.”
Jesus was under a curse for us. He took this curse upon Himself to save all who take Him as Lord and Savior.
Now one of the amazing signs that occurred when Jesus died—besides the earthquake and ripping of the veil in the Temple—was that holy people who had died were resurrected from the dead (Matt. 27:52-53). But then the Scriptures say something that, when you think about it, seems kind of strange. If it had happened to you, don’t you think you’d have run home and told everybody about it? Instead, those who had been resurrected remained hidden. They did not immediately present themselves in the holy city, Jerusalem; rather, they waited until Jesus rose from the dead. Why? In order that Jesus, the High Priest, could present them to the Father as a firstfruits offering after He had risen from the dead and in order to fulfill the Feast of Firstfruits on the 18th of Nisan, just after the weekly Sabbath (Lev. 23:9-14). More on that will follow.
Jesus was buried just before sundown at the end of the day, Nisan 14th, just before the “dawning” of the new day, the special Sabbath of Unleavened Bread, Nisan 15. Since Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath, He entered Jerusalem as King on a Sabbath and then would be raised from the dead in victory on the Sabbath, in 3 days (72 hours), just as He said He would. Jesus fulfilled the sign of Jonah! In 1 Corinthians 15:3, we read: “For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures.”
According to what Scriptures? The only Scripture they had at the time was the Old Testament! Jesus fulfilled Jonah 1:17, among other Scriptures.
Jesus rose at the very end of the weekly Sabbath, Nisan 17, “just before dawn.” Are there any other proofs of the double Sabbaths? Yes, in Matthew 28, we read: “After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.” However, the word for Sabbath in this passage in Greek is a plural noun! The Greek for the word “Sabbath” is Sabbaton, which is actually a neuter plural noun. Most translators, not familiar with the Jewish Feasts, and thinking of the traditional Friday death and Sunday morning resurrection, translate it as singular. But when we look in Zondervan’s Parallel New Testament in Greek and English or in the NASB Interlinear Greek-English New Testament, we see that it is a plural noun: Sabbaths.
In Young’s Literal Translation we read:
28:1 And on the eve of the sabbaths, at the dawn, toward the first of the sabbaths, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to see the sepulcher.
|of Hebrew origin (shabbath 7676); the Sabbath (i.e. Shabbath), or day of weekly repose from secular avocations (also the observance or institution itself); by extension, a se’nnight, i.e. the interval between two Sabbaths; likewise the plural in all the above applications:–sabbath (day), week.
Since the translators only knew of one Sabbath, they translated it in the singular. Also, as we have discussed earlier, the “dawn” would have been sundown, going from the weekly Sabbath of Nisan 17 to the first day of the week, Sunday, Nisan 18. This shows how important it is to interpret Scripture in the context of the author’s background, intent, and understanding. The authors were Jewish and wrote the Gospels from that perspective. In the booklet entitled “The Sabbath Rest” by Michael Moshe, he states:
“Luke 16:1 says that ‘when the Sabbath was past’ they found the tomb empty. The word past, diaginomai, means to be spent. It is an awkward word to translate, but perhaps could be rendered ‘when the Sabbath was spent, or ending,’ the tomb was found empty. Other passages use the Greek word Opse, and are incorrectly translated to read ‘after the Sabbath was over.’ Opse means late in the day, toward the end of the day, not after the day is over or completed! To interpret these Scriptures to mean that the resurrection was on Sunday is an incorrect translation. Since the grave was empty when they arrived on Sunday morning, it doesn’t necessarily mean that He was resurrected on Sunday morning. To find the tomb empty on Sunday means that He must have come out of it sometime before they got there . . . probably on Saturday between five and six p.m.”
Understanding the concept of Jewish “dawn” of a new day being sundown sheds light on the time of Jesus resurrection.
When Mary saw Jesus, after mistaking Him for the gardener (John 20:15-17), she was not allowed to touch Him. Why was this? It was because Jesus had not yet fulfilled the Feast of Firstfruits by ascending to the Father to present Himself, and those who were the firstfruits of the resurrection, as an offering to the Father. Let’s look at Leviticus 23:9-14 regarding the firstfruits:
9 The LORD said to Moses, 10 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest. 11 He is to wave the sheaf before the LORD so it will be accepted on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath. 12 On the day you wave the sheaf, you must sacrifice as a burnt offering to the LORD a lamb a year old without defect, 13 together with its grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with olive oil—a food offering presented to the LORD, a pleasing aroma—and its drink offering of a quarter of a hin of wine. 14 You must not eat any bread, or roasted or new grain, until the very day you bring this offering to your God. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.
Jesus was going to the Father to present Himself as the Firstfruits, perfect and undefiled. That’s why Mary could not be allowed to touch Him; He had to see the Father first and present the offering of the Firstfruits, in order to fulfill the Scriptures. First Corinthians 15, the “resurrection chapter,” describes Jesus as the Firstfruits:
20 But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. 22 For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. 23 But each in turn: Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him. 24 Then the end will come, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father after he has destroyed all dominion, authority and power.
Jesus is the firstfruits of the resurrection and the firstfruits of the redemption of the earth. These are awesome patterns that God established front he beginning of time. In Genesis 1, we read:
9 And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good.
11 Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day.
Notice that the third day was a day of life, after the waters receded. And this was before the sun, moon, and stars were created on the fourth day! Did Moses mistakenly get the order wrong? No. God was establishing the third day as a day of life and resurrection from the beginning. You will also notice that the third day was the only day that had a double blessing. “And God saw it was good” is repeated twice. This is the only day of creation where that happens. (And to this day, Jews want to get married on Tuesday, the third day of the week because of this “double blessing.”)
One other interesting fact that shows God’s incredible patterns pointing to Christ is in the Old Testament story of Noah in Genesis 8:4: “And on the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.” The ark came to rest (Sabbath) on the 17th day, the same day as Jesus’ resurrection! Jesus is our ark, and in Him we have salvation.
There are many more incredible connections and deeper & deeper levels of meaning in the Scriptures. God has fashioned the entire Old Testament and history itself to point to and glorify His Son. It is awesome and a real faith-builder to see how Jesus fulfilled the Feasts of Leviticus 23 during Holy Week.
Bible quotations from New International Version (2010), BibleGateway.com
www.centuryone.com/crucifixion. “The Chronology of Christ’s Crucifixion and Resurrection.” Century One Bookstore, Educational Reference series. 1996-2008.
Boyer, James L. “Chronology of the Crucifixion and the Last Week” chart (Winona Lake, IN: BMH Books, 1975).
Carlson, Jeff. “Holy Week-Sabbath Rest.” Cassette tape of teaching presentation at Oakhill Church, Grand Rapids, MI. (03-01-02)
Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple: Its Ministry and Services (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1994).
Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G. The Footsteps of the Messiah: The Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events (Tusten, CA, Ariel Press, 1982)
Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G. Israelology: The Missing Link in Systematic Theology (Tusten, CA, Ariel Press, 1989).
Marshall, Alfred. The NASB Interlinear Greek-English New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI Zondervaan, 1984).
Moshe, Michael. The Sabbath Rest (Greeley, CO: Firstfruits of Zion, 1994).
Parallel New Testament in Greek and English (Grand Rapids, MI Zondervan ——)
Strassfeld, Michael. The Jewish Holidays: A Guide & Commentary (New York: Harper & Row, 1985).
Vander Laan, Ray. Video Tapes: That the World May Know (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999).
Vander Laan, Ray. Walk as Jesus Walked—Making Disciples. DVD. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999).
Vander Laan, Ray. Faith Lessons on the Early Church. DVD. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006).
Vander Laan, Ray. Faith Lessons: In the Dust of the Rabbi. DVD. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005).